The Systemic Inflammation and Sepsis section is led by Massimo Girardis.

SIS News



Sepsis and Severe Infections

This 2-day e-course blends techniques that encourage maximum learning. Special attention is given to interactive activities, case-based discussions, workshops and problem-oriented approaches.


The COVID-19 ALIVE course is a unique learning opportunity, structured and comprehensive addressing COVID-19 in critically ill patients in LMICs.

The course content specifically addresses many common issues faced when caring for critically ill COVID-19 patients in LMICs.

Speakers from around the world will share their experiences and cover ten pertinent and key topics related to relevant aspects of the care of such patients.

The course is FREE of charge, whether you hold an ESICM membership or not.

Educational webinar series on sepsis management

This new initiative will cover the management of patients suffering from sepsis with a strong focus on the role & value of diagnostic tests. It is designed as an educational journey from the early signs of sepsis to the post-sepsis syndrome and it will grant:

  • 1 CME credit after completing each webinar’s quizfor a total of 5 CME credits
  • 20 free entries to LIVES 2022 Annual Congress in Paris for the top-scoring participants
Past webinars

Free live webinars are available for members & non members on the ESICM Media Library.



Sepsis Assessment and Identification in Low Resource Settings (SAILORS). SAILORS Study Group, ESICM, SCCM collaboration.

> Abstract

Incidence of severe sepsis and septic shock

> ICM Pulse


Abdominal Sepsis Study: Epidemiology of Etiology and Outcome is a multinational, prospective, observational study on intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in critically ill patients with a special emphasis on epidemiology and outcomes.

Investigate microbiology and/or drug resistance patterns. Describe physician’s antimicrobial prescription patterns. Investigate outcomes (clinical response, need for surgical revision, length of hospitalisation, and mortality).

Read the publication


The trial aimed at identifying factors that determine the incidence, severity and the outcome from life-threatening infections (severe sepsis/septic shock) in patients admitted to High Dependency Units (HDUs) or Intensive Care Units (ICUs) with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) or with faecal peritonitis (FP).

Further information:

Genomic landscape of the individual host response and outcomes in sepsis: a prospective cohort study

Read more

Qing-Quan L. et al. Early administration of hydrocortisone, vitamin C, and thiamine in adult patients with septic shock: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Crit Care 2022 Sep 28;26(1):295

Teboul J.L. How to integrate hemodynamic variables during resuscitation of septic shock? J Intensive Care Med 2022

Hernandez-Beeftink T. et al. A genome-wide association study of survival in patients with sepsis. Critical Care 2022; 26: 341

Sun T. et al. Efficacy of Levosimendan in the Treatment of Patients with Severe Septic Cardiomyopathy. J Cardiothor and Vasc Anesth 2022

Jozwiak M. et al. Alternatives to norepinephrine in septic shock: Which agents and when? J Intensive Med 2022; 2: 223-232

von Groote T. and Meersch-Dini M. Biomarkers for the Prediction and Judgement of Sepsis and Sepsis Complications: A Step towards precision medicine? J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(19), 5782

Patel J.J. et al. High-Dose Intravenous Hydroxocobalamin (Vitamin B12) in Septic Shock: A Double-Blind, Allocation-Concealed, Placebo-Controlled Single-Center Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial (The IV-HOCSS Trial). Chest 2022; epublished September 26th

Van den Berghe G. et al. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in sepsis- and hyperinflammation-induced critical illness: Gaps in current knowledge and future translational research directions. eBioMedicine 2022;84:104284

Hyun D-G. et al. Mortality of patients with hospital-onset sepsis in hospitals with all-day and non-all-day rapid response teams: a prospective nationwide multicenter cohort study. Crit Care 2022;26:280

Cou M. et al. Remote ischemic conditioning in septic shock: the RECO-Sepsis randomized clinical trial. Intensive Care Med 2022; epublished September 14th

Vincent J-L. et al. The End of “One Size Fits All” Sepsis Therapies: Toward an Individualized Approach. Biomedicines 2022;10:2260

Roggeveen L.F. et al. Right dose, right now: bedside, real-time, data-driven, and personalised antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients with sepsis or septic shock—a two-centre randomised clinical trial. Crit Care 2022;26:265

Zhang T. Use of dexmedetomidine in patients with sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. Ann. Intensive Care 2022;12:81

Bruse N. Clinical sepsis phenotypes in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Crit Care 2022;26:244

Fage N. et al. Effects of mean arterial pressure target on mottling and arterial lactate normalization in patients with septic shock: a post hoc analysis of the SEPSISPAM randomized trial. Ann Intensive Care 202219;12(1):78

Cortegiani A. et al. Empiric treatment of patients with sepsis and septic shock and place in therapy of cefiderocol: a systematic review and expert opinion statement. J Anesth Analg Crit Care 2022;2:34

Patel S. et al. Sepsis Management for the Nephrologist. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2022 Jun;17(6):880-889

Molinari L, et al. ProCESS and ProGReSS-AKI Investigators. Utility of Biomarkers for Sepsis-Associated Acute Kidney Injury Staging. JAMA Netw Open. 2022 May 2;5(5):e2212709

Hussain H. et al. Patient Stratification in Sepsis: Using Metabolomics to Detect Clinical Phenotypes, Sub-Phenotypes and Therapeutic Response. Metabolites. 2022 Apr 21;12(5):376

Rüddel H. et al. Adverse effects of delayed antimicrobial treatment and surgical source control in adults with sepsis: results of a planned secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Crit Care 26, 51 (2022).

Codina M.S. and Zeitlinger M. Biomarkers Predicting Tissue Pharmacokinetics of Antimicrobials in Sepsis: A Review. Clin Pharmacokinet 2022

Hagel S. et al. Effect of therapeutic drug monitoring-based dose optimization of piperacillin/tazobactam on sepsis-related organ dysfunction in patients with sepsis: a randomized controlled trial. Intensive Care Med 48, 311–321 (2022).

Tiruvoipati R. et al. An Exploratory Analysis of the Association between Hypercapnia and Hospital Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2022 Feb;19(2):245-254.

Rosengrave P. et al. Intravenous vitamin C administration to patients with septic shock: a pilot randomised controlled trial. Crit Care 2022;26:26 –

Lazzaro A. et al. The Interplay between Host Defense, Infection, and Clinical Status in Septic Patients: A Narrative Review. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 12;23(2):803.

Osuchowski, M.F. et al. Minimum quality threshold in pre-clinical sepsis studies (MQTiPSS): an international expert consensus initiative for improvement of animal modeling in sepsisICMx 6, 26 (2018).

Coopersmith, C.M. et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: Research Priorities for Sepsis and Septic Shock. Crit Care Med. 2018 Aug;46(8):1334-1356.

Surviving Sepsis Campaign

The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) is a partnership of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Society of Critical Care Medicine.

It was started in 2002 with several aims including the development of guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and post-ICU care of sepsis and a reduction of mortality from sepsis.

Updated Adult Guidelines – October 2021

The updated adult sepsis guidelines represent input from a diverse panel of 60 experts and a survey of more than 800 intensivists from more than 30 countries. The guidelines recommend involving patients and their families in goals-of-care discussions to treat the long-term effects of sepsis.

Guidelines Access

COVID-19 guidelines – January 2021

The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) has updated the previously released Guidelines on the Management of Critically Ill Adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

The panel issued nine statements related to ICU patients with severe or critical COVID-19. Several of the original recommendations remain current.

Amongst the nine updates for treating severe or critical COVID-19 patients, the panel strongly recommends using systemic corticosteroids and venous thromboprophylaxis, and strongly recommends against using hydroxychloroquine. In addition, the panel suggests using dexamethasone (compared with other corticosteroids) and suggests against using convalescent plasma outside clinical trials. The SSC COVID-19 panel suggests using remdesivir in nonventilated patients with severe COVID-19 and suggests against starting remdesivir in patients with critical COVID-19 outside clinical trials. Because of insufficient evidence, the panel was not able to issue recommendations on the use of awake prone positioning or empiric therapeutic anticoagulation.

Guidelines Access

Access the original guidelines, published in June 2020, here.

Bundle – 2018

Levy, M.M. et al. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Bundle: 2018 update. Intensive Care Med 44, 925–928 (2018).

Surviving Sepsis Campaign webpage

Worlde Health Assembly Resolution on Sepsis


On May 26th the World Health Organisation held its 70th assembly in Geneva, Switzerland. During this gathering, 194 United Nations member states voted to affirm a resolution implementing steps to reduce the human and economic burden of sepsis. Outgoing Director-General Dr Margaret Chan through this resolution drew attention to these important actions:

  1. Publish a report on sepsis and its global consequences by the end of 2018;
  2. Draw attention to the public impact of sepsis;
  3. Collaborate with other organisations & relevant stakeholders in enhancing access to quality, safe, efficacious and affordable types of treatments of sepsis, and infection prevention and control; and
  4. Report to the 2020 WHA on the implementation of this resolution.

A WHO news release of the resolution is provided here along with the full resolution attached.

The European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Society of Critical Care Medicine through the Surviving Sepsis Campaign, will be assessing steps the Campaign will take to contribute and support these vitally important efforts. Please share this resolution information amongst your colleagues at your hospital in acknowledgement that sepsis has now been officially recognised as a global challenge in which we all play an important role worldwide. Thank you all for your dedication to early identification and treatment, antibiotic stewardship and continued vigilance on behalf of the patients we serve.