ESICM members are welcome to participate in research surveys covering important aspects of intensive care medicine. These surveys, proposed by experts in the field, are endorsed by the ESICM Research Committee and offer a great opportunity to advance knowledge and often stimulate further research.

Do you have a survey you would like ESICM to endorse?

Fill in the application form and forward it here.


After some general questions, you will have four cases related to different patients admitted with anaemia.

What is your decision regarding red blood cell transfusion? Which were the most important factors that influenced your decision?

Complete the survey here.

Contact: S. A Willems

Ongoing Survey

Transfusion Decisions in European ICUs

Despite clinical research showing benefits of restrictive red blood cell transfusion triggers, guidelines remain inconclusive about precise indications for the individual patient. Variation in transfusion practice still exists, possibly caused by physicians taking into account multiple clinical factors (besides haemoglobin concentrations).

This survey aims to estimate the extent of variation in transfusion decisions within four clinical scenarios. This knowledge can add to further improve personalised care with respect to transfusion practice in critically ill patients.

The INOX-ICU 1 team:
S. A Willems Bsc, Sesmu Arbous MD/PhD, Prof. J. Kesecioglu MD/PhD, Prof. J. van der Bom MD/PhD, Prof. S. le Cessie PhD, P.J. Marang-van de Mheen PhD, F. Kranenburg MD/PhD

Ongoing Survey


International survey on the Structure and Organisation of the Intensive Care Unit (ISOREA).

The objective is to evaluate the current structure and organisation of ICUs in a very large sample of countries with low, middle and high income, given the scarcity of data in this area.

This survey has been endorsed by the Société de Réanimation de Langue Française (SRLF), by the Subsaharian Society for Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SARANF) and by ESICM.

It is organised by Pr. Armand MEKONTSO DESSAP, Medical ICU, Henri Mondor University Hospital, Créteil, France


After some general questions on your ICU, there are a series of questions on various issues such as on bacteriological analyses, medical imaging, medical data and patient monitoring, haemodynamic monitoring, equipment, ICU techniques and procedures and so on.

Complete the survey here.



This survey from the ESPNIC Respiratory Section and endorsed by ESICM aims to assess the current state of paediatric (<12 m old) and neonatal lung (or heart/lung) transplantation including physicians’ awareness knowledge across Europe. Results from this survey will be used to initiate further steps to improve outcomes in the most vulnerable and ill patients in Europe.

Complete the survey here.

Contact: Daniele De Luca

Ongoing Survey

CHANGE IT! State of the art on paediatric and neonatal lung/heart transplantation in Europe

Lung or heart/lung transplantation is rarely performed in infants and neonates. Only a few life-threatening and extremely rare conditions may pose a viable indication for such an early transplant. Good results have been reported also in some of the smallest patients in North American centres, providing some encouraging results for increased transplantation in this patient group.

The scope of CHANGE IT! is to take a picture of physicians awareness, and knowledge about lung/heart transplantation and related conditions in Europe. From this point onwards other steps could be taken to improve the health of the most vulnerable patients in Europe.

Ongoing survey

Acute Nonphysician Provider Survey (ANoPPS)

In contrast to the US, the literature in Europe regarding implementation of nurse practitioners or physician assistants, as an alternative staffing model for residents in the Intensive Care Unit remains almost non-existent.
The aim of this survey is to obtain an insight into the implementation of (acute care) nurse practitioners or physician assistants (both called non-physicians providers) and nurse specialists on ICUs in Europe.

Over the next decennia demand for ICU care and personnel will increase due to the rising age of the ICU population and economical welfare combined with a social demand for a high quality of care. To overcome these challenges more physicians and ICU staff will be needed. The looming physician shortage following from this, is already present in some regions of Europe. A potential solution can be the implementation of non-physicians providers instead of residents. Some studies from the United States even report a quality and continuity improvement on well-staffed ICUs, after implementation of this concept. Meanwhile, the effect of this concept on European ICUs remains unknown.

The nursing staff equivalent of the non-physician providers, the nurse specialist, is more common in European ICUs, but to which degree this more general known concept has been implemented is also unknown.


This survey contains questions about:
• The role and application of non-physicians and nurse specialists in Europe
• Reasons for implementing or not implementing non-physicians in the ICU.
• The method on how non-physicians and nurse specialists are embedded in ICU staffing models and organisation.

It is time to obtain more insight into the concept of non-physicians and nurse specialists on the ICU to be able to organise more efficient European ICUs for the future with potentially an even better quality and continuity of care.

To take part in this brief survey, kindly click here.

Contact: Herman Kreeftenberg, HSRO section

Completed Surveys

List of ESICM completed surveys


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