A narrative review of the literature on delirium, focusing on diagnosis, prevention and treatment
Delirium is common in critically ill adults but still neglected in clinical practice. Acute disturbances in cognition are often considered inevitable consequences of the severity of underlying illness, use of sedatives and exposure to the ICU environment. Greater awareness of delirium and its long- and short-term complications is needed among ICU practitioners to provide patients with effective interventions directed at mitigating suffering and adverse outcomes.
Stollings et al. wrote a narrative review  that analyses current diagnostic tools, prevention, and treatment strategies targeting delirium.
Establishing a definition represents an essential basis for the clinical management of delirium. A definition is provided in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-5) and it is the one recommended by a consensus of ten societies published in Intensive Care Medicine (ICM) in 2020 .
Delirium is a clinical diagnosis. According to Pain, Agitation/sedation, Delirium, Immobility, Sleep (PADIS) guidelines , delirium should be assessed routinely using proper tools: either the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) or the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC). CAM-ICU and ICDSC are quick and easy to use, have good sensitivity and specificity and have been shown to perform well in different clinical settings and patient populations.
There are also tools designated to assess delirium severity or the risk of developing delirium, but they are still used solely for research purposes. The role of EEG and MRI in the diagnosis is still unclear.
Pharmacologic interventions have been proven ineffective for both the prevention and treatment of delirium; thus, they are not recommended by the PADIS guidelines. Randomised controlled trials showed that dexmedetomidine decreased delirium incidence in surgical and critically ill patients; the results of these studies were discussed in PADIS guidelines but judged to be insufficient to justify the use of dexmedetomidine for delirium prevention. No pharmacologic agents can treat delirium in ICU. However, the use of haloperidol, atypical antipsychotics and dexmedetomidine can help manage agitation, hyperactive and aggressive behaviour and anxiety.
Nonpharmacologic strategies, including the ABCDEF (A, assess, prevent, and manage pain; B, both spontaneous awakening and spontaneous breathing trials; C, choice of analgesic and sedation; D, delirium: assess, prevent, and manage; E, early mobility, and exercise; F, family engagement: A2F) bundle, are the mainstay of management.
STUDY STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS
This narrative review accurately defines delirium and describes its clinical manifestations. Moreover, it accurately analyses PADIS guidelines by describing the results of the studies that support the recommendations on diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Finally, it provides ICU practitioners with an algorithm for the management of delirium in critically ill patients. However, this paper does not address the clinical heterogeneity of delirium and the possibility of personalisation of therapy.
Delirium is a common problem in ICU, and it is associated with adverse outcomes, including higher mortality, more prolonged ICU and hospital stay, chronic cognitive impairment. The evidence suggests that no specific pharmacologic agent can prevent or treat this form of brain dysfunction. Therefore, the implementation of multi-component nonpharmacologic interventions is an effective strategy for lessening the burden of delirium.
This article review was prepared and submitted by Dr Marta Cicetti and Dr Temistocle Taccheri, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS , Rome (Italy) on behalf of ESICM Review Club.
 Stollings J.L. et al. Delirium in critical illness: clinical manifestations, outcomes, and management. Intensive Care Med. 2021 Oct;47(10):1089-1103. doi: 10.1007/s00134-021-06503-1. Epub 2021 Aug 16. PMID: 34401939; PMCID: PMC8366492.
 Slooter, A. et al. Updated nomenclature of delirium and acute encephalopathy: statement of ten Societies. Intensive care Med. 2020 May; 46(5), 1020–1022. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-019-05907-4.
 Devlin J.W. et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of pain, agitation/sedation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disruption in adult patients in the ICU. 2018 Sep; Crit Care Med 46(9):e825–e873.