Critical Care Refresher Course: Trauma and Surgery

GI Bleed (Kumar)

What is a massive GI bleed?

  • Bleeding resulting in CVS collapse
  • mortality up to 40%
  • over 75% due to upper GI bleed (lower GI bleed mortality 2%)


  • Ulcers (Duodenal > Gastric)
  • Gastritis
  • Varices
  • Oesophagitis

Team: Gastroenteritis, Surgeon, Interventional Radiologists


Acute pancreatitis (Marshall)

Pancreatitis is a chemical burn of the retroperitoneum

Incidence 10-80/100,000

Mortality 10-25%


  • Fluid collection, ascites
  • Pseudocyst
  • Fat necrosis

Severity scores –

Resist antibiotics

No other intervention except PATIENCE!

Early surgery for pancreatitis do badly.