Mortality of immunocompromised patients who need mechanical ventilation has reduced dramatically but remain relatively high (40-60%)

NIV does reduce intubation rates in these patients in older trials (but at that time, mortality for intubation was 80% rather than the lower values found in modern practice)

Multicentre, RCT comparing NIV to O2 on all-cause D28 mortality in immunocompromised patients with hypoxaemic respiratory failure


  • Adult
    • Haematological/solid tumour OR
    • Solid organ transplant OR
    • Long-tern steroids OR
    • Immunosuppression
  • + Respiratory failure

Excluded other organ failures or likely to need ETT / lots of O2

191 received early NIV, 183 O2. No loss to follow-up.

No difference in mortality at 28 days


Didn’t matter what diagnosis was (i.e. solid organ or haematological malignancy). However, was powered for mortality of 35% in oxygen group and was much less than this.

7% of patients only received one session of NIV – either due to need for intubation or poor tolerance (who were in the main subsequently intubated)

No difference in intubation rates, length of ICU stay, 6/12 mortality

1/3 of patients across the two groups received HFNO2 but mortality wasn’t any different

Conclusion: Early NIV did not reduce mortality compared with O2 but study underpowered as mortality much less than was predicted.

Effect of Noninvasive Ventilation vs Oxygen Therapy on Mortality Among Immunocompromised Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure