Category Archives: sepsis

Myth Busters! #LIVES2020

https://lives2020.e-lives.org/session/myth-buster-facing-myths

5 False beliefs in acute and chronic respiratory failure

Pr Alexandre DEMOULE

  1. ARDS pts should be intubated promptly
  2. Intubation can be safely delayed in ARDS patients
  3. In COPD, NIV is contra-inducated in case of coma
  4. In cancer pts, do everything not to intubate
  5. Response to prone position predicts the outcome

ARDS pts should be intubated promptly

Time to intubation has no impact on mortality

In COPD, NIV is contrainidcated in case of coma

  • NOT AT ALL, in cases of hypercapnic coma, do a NIV trial

In cancer pts, do everything not to intubate

Response to PRONE position predicts the outcome

When lactate is normal the circulation is adequate

Prof J Bakker

The ten pitfalls of lactate clearance in sepsis

Effect of a Resuscitation Strategy Targeting Peripheral Perfusion Status vs Serum Lactate Levels on 28-Day Mortality Among Patients With Septic Shock
The ANDROMEDA-SHOCK Randomized Clinical Trial

Conclusions

  • The clinical context we create from an increased lactate is: tissue hypoperfusion/hypoxia
    • This is on a macrocirculatory level
  • Lactate levels frequently remain abnormal during the first 24h of admission in survivors of septic shock
  • Mildly elevated lactate levels are associated with increases in mortality and abnormal microcirculation
  • Lactate levels need context
    • Markers of peripheral/microcirculatory perfusion
  • Lactate levels do not denote a state of perfusion

Adrenaline improves outcome after cardiac arrest?

Time to administration of epinephrine and outcome after in-hospital cardiac arrest with non-shockable rhythms: retrospective analysis of large in-hospital data registry

A Randomized Trial of Epinephrine in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

2019 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations

Conclusion

  • Survival to hospital admission x 3 higher
  • More survivors to discharge
  • More neurologically favourable survivors
  • More brain-injured survivors

 

False beliefs about duration of antibiotic therapy

J De Weale (twitter)

The FALSE beliefs

  1. Antibiotic duration needs to be ‘fixed’
    • No Biological rationale
    • Bacteria don’t calculate the days exposed
  2. Short courses are less effective
    • Longer courses do not protect against complications
    • BUT some infections do require longer treatment
  3. I need a biomarker to determine duration
  4. Antibiotics need to be continued until clinical symptoms have subsided
  5. An antimicrobial course should always be completed.

Summary

  • Inappropriate antimicrobial use in the ICU is unacceptably high
  • Duration important contributor
  • Management often based on incorrect assumptions
  • “7-days course” current dogma for most infections
  • Individualized therapy is the future
  • AI to refine therapy duration

Prof’s De Weale’s slideset (I like the design)

Prognostication of individual survival chances is not possible? Machine learning is the answer

Prof Mihaela van der Schaar (twitter) www.vanderschaar-lab.com

Machine learning can enable:

1) Delivering precision medicine at the patient level
2) Understanding the basis and trajectories of health and disease
3) Informing and improving clinical pathways, better utilize resources, and reduce costs
4) Transforming population health and public health policy

False beliefs in the management of fever

F Schortgen

Fever is not hyperthermia

Treating fever has never been proven to improve patient comfort

Effect of Shivering on Brain Tissue Oxygenation During Induced Normothermia in Patients With Severe Brain Injury

Antipyresis is NOT necessarily good for haemodynamic stabilistation and tissue oxygenation

 

New developments that every intensivist should know about…..

Cardiology

Prof S Price

COVID-19

2020 Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) in Patients Presenting without Persistent ST-Segment Elevation (Management of) Guidelines

  • Rapid rule in/rule out algorithms now recommended to use ESC 0h/1h algorithm ( or 1h/2h algorithm (second best option) if a hs-cTn test with a validated algorithm is available
  • If elective non-invasive/invasive imaging is needed after the rule-out of MI, invasive angiography is the best option in those with a very high clinical likelihood of UA. Stress testing with imaging or CCTA is best in those with low-to-modest clinical risk.
  • Rhythm monitoring for up to 24 h or to PCI (whichever comes first) is recommended for those at low risk for arrhythmias and monitoring >24h if at increased risk
  • Early routine invasive approach within 24 hours for NSTEMI based on hs-cTn measurements, GRACE score >140, dynamic/new STT changes.

Clinical application of the 4th Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction

Temporary circulatory support for cardiogenic shock

Pulmonology

EJ Nossent

Potential therapies

Pirfenidone for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: analysis of pooled data from three multinational phase 3 trials

Efficacy and Safety of Nintedanib in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Nintedanib for Systemic Sclerosis–Associated Interstitial Lung Disease

Nintedanib in Progressive Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Diseases

Take home message

  • ILD is not one disease
  • Acute excacerbation in every type of ILD
  • The landscape is changing; finally…
  • Position antifibrotic therapy fibrotic ILD not clear yet; immunosuppressants.

From the disease lung fibrosis to criteria, towards phenotyping, towards personalized medicine.

Neurology

Prof S Koch

COVID-19

Conclusion

EID risk is increasing due to climate change and loss of biodiversity
-> we need to adress this now

Neurological manifestation of Covid-19 occur in ~ 36%

Cerebrovasculare Manifestions occur in ~ 5% of Covid-19 patients based on
–pathological coagulation or hyperinflammation
–includes younger patients or patients with typical riskfactors
–leads to more severe outcome
-> check carefully coagulation parameters and risk factors

Altered conscious state is seen in ~ 65% of Covid-19 ICU patients
–based on encephalopathy or seizures
-> EEG monitoring, MRI

Anaesthesiology

S Loer

Optimizing preoperative fluid therapy Encourage use of clear carbohydrate drinks up until 2 h prior to surgery!

  • Less catabolism
  • Less postoperative nausea and vomiting
  • Less insulin resistance
  • Less perioperative anxiety

Intraoperative fluids

Impact of intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy on major morbidity and mortality after transthoracic oesophagectomy: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial

Perioperative goal-directed therapy: what’s the best study design to investigate its impact on patient outcome?

Anesthesia-induced immune modulation

Post-op delirium

Postoperative delirium: perioperative assessment, risk reduction, and management

Post-op pain

Vitamin C – a summary from @dogICUma #LIVES2020

Vitamin C is a .. #LIVES2020

  • An ANTIOXIDANT
  • A COFACTOR in the synthesis of catecholamines
  • Aids WOUND HEALING
  • Is ANTI-INFLAMMATORY
  • Enhances IMMUNE CELL FUNCTION

The 1 which started it… Hydrocortisone, Vitamin C, and Thiamine for the Treatment of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Retrospective Before-After Study #LIVES2020

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27940189/

 

Combination therapy of vitamin C and thiamine for septic shock in a multicentre, double-blind, randomized, controlled study (ATESS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial #LIVES2020

https://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13063-019-3542-x

The VITAMINS Randomized Clinical Trial #LIVES2020 @JAMAnetwork

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2759414

In conclusion on Vitamin C #LIVES2020

Immunotherapies for cancer in the ICU

The first lecture of the day was given by the expert in the area Elie Azoulay.  He talked through immune therapies that are being used in cancer.

Immune therapy “boosts” the immune system and restores its ability to eradicate cancer cells.  There are loads of different types of immune therapy – but Azoulay focussed on the ones that are of relevance to intensivists – Adoptive Cell Transfer, encapsulating “CAR T-cells” and “checkpoint inhibitors”.

Cancer cells normally find ways to act on checkpoints (molecules on T Cells) to avoid being attacked by the immune system.  Checkpoint inhibitors, drugs like pembrolizumab and vivolumab [act on PD-1] or atezolizumab [acts on PD-L1] activate the immune system to get to work on tumours.  BUT the usual safeguards against autoimmunity within the body are also affected.  Other drugs that target CTLA-4 (such as ipilimumab used in melanoma)  act as a type of “off switch” on T Cells.  And they work in solid organ tumours – particularly in combination the oncology trial results are impressive… This paper is an overview of the field from a couple of years ago as quoted below:

There are lots of these drugs – how might you identify if your patient has received one? Well hopefully it will be abundantly clear from their treatment or oncologist – but they are all monclonal antibodies of course so end in -mab.  Heres a list:

The other type of treatment in this category then is Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells (CAR-T cells).  These are the patient’s own T Cells, apheresed, stimulated and expanded and then re-infused.

The treatments and trials of note are Tisagenlecuecel in the ELIANA trial for young people with refectory B Cell ALL and JULIET trial for high grade B Cell lymphoma and Axicabtagene cioleucel for relapsed B Cell lymphoma in the ZUMA-I trial.

The reason these second or third line cancer treatment matters for intensive care though is because of the serious adverse event rate.  All this immune system jiggery pokery comes at the cost of upsetting normal function and some 30 to 40% of patients will get some sort of complication:

So what will we need to do on ICU?

The lists of critical care support is quite long as theses patients can get multi organ failure requiring support! They range from ruling out infection (e.g. LP in neurotoxicity – is it CAR-T related or CNS infection/sepsis?) and admiting for close observation/monitoring, good symptom control/IV fluids through to oxygenation and ventilation for acute respiratory failure, vasopressors and shock treatment and even renal and cardiac support and monitoring.  There are specific treatments – steroids are the mainstay but blocking the cytokines responsible for the cytokine storm (for example with IL6 antagonists /  tacilizumab) and other rescue strategies.

Some of the complications are still not fully understood – for example neurotoxicity might be related to the parenchyma effect of CAR-T cells or might be a break down of the blood brain barrier, and earlier onset cytokine storm seems to lead to worse neurotoxicity – prompting some people to think there is a link.  But its still an area of research…

The current reality in many units is that CART therapy is bringing patients to ICU for reversible pathology, and because CAR T therapy is an exciting area, perhaps perhaps it will expand beyond its current remit in cancer to other conditions… So we need to be ready!

My favourite bit of Azoulays talk today was his patient information leaflet – enjoy!

Jamie